The periodization of the training process as the implementation of the principle of cyclicity is a prerequisite of duration and continuity of the positive changes that need to be achieved as a result of joint activities of the client and his personal trainer. With the necessity of applying this method will inevitably face every personal trainer working with his client for quite a long time. The gradual and simultaneous increase in volume and intensity of training load, the potential at the initial stage of this cooperation becomes impossible when the client goes into the category “advanced”, his training begin to differ quite a heavy load, but the quality and function, as the load on the workouts, slowing down in its development. Further development, as indicated in the section “Principles of training”, is provided by periodic changes in the nature of the load, in which, according to the principle of specificity will be ensured the consistent development of different features or structures that are specific to a specific load. In front of the coach the task is to choose from the variety of training tools and methods those that will lead to the development of functions and structures that provide the greatest contribution to the solution of common problems, problem-max. In the practice of sports, where a high level athlete is the cumulative result of the development of a very large number of skills and abilities, the question of the choice of training methods and tools and their correct combination, very complex.
In practice, the fitness training range of tasks that have to solve a personal coach and a range of tools and techniques for solving them can be quite wide.
Consider the example, when the client puts before you the task-high, associated with increasing muscle mass. Let’s try to analyze how you can break it up into smaller tasks.
We know that to increase muscle mass by training is due to the following factors: an increase in the level of capillarization, the number and size of mitochondria, increase sarcoplasm, thickness and number of myofibrils, increase in glycogen stores.
In addition to these, there are factors indirectly related to muscle gain, but acting on it actively. For example, adaptation to training aimed at developing endurance, expressed in the development of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the mitochondrial apparatus and, consequently, improvement of the mechanism of resynthesis of ATP due to oxidation, significantly reduce the recovery period and synthesis of protein structures after high-intensity resistance training. Because oxidation plays a leading role in providing energy to energy consuming synthetic processes initiated by these exercises.
The development of the above mentioned factors that determine muscle size, will be the result of different adaptation processes, which, in turn, will be initiated by the different nature of the load training effects. Devoting mesocycles pre-emptive solving of various tasks and has continually alternating, it is possible to provide a sufficiently long and continuous progress in achieving goals – high.
Currently, in practice, fitness training, periodista training program, mainly use two techniques:
The first technique involves a succession of training programmes that shape and clear boundaries of beginning and end of the training on these programs. Each such program having a constant corresponding to the current functional condition of the client the value of the load, differs from the others mainly by its volume and intensity. The duration of each mesocycle, during which your client is engaged in the same program and, consequently, affects the compliance with this program system your body usually is two to four months. At the end of each mesocycle week break follows, during which the client performs only aerobic workout a small volume and a low level of intensity. The objective of these periods of physical and mental recovery of the body, “the self-treatment of minor wounds, muscle and connective tissue.
Dynamics of load change within a single mesocycle might look quite diverse. The most common variant – a linear increase in load that occurs mainly due to the increase in weight weights. The athlete tries to put into practice the principle of overload, trying every workout to increase the weight of the weights. In this case, as rightly pointed out in his book “Think” Stuart Mac Robert, is not so much the speed of weight gain weights, how much the very existence of this progression. Therefore, it seems reasonable, when approaching its genetically specified limit in the development of power abilities to use for the additional weight of the barbell or dumbbell discs as little as possible weight (so-called “roznowski”). The volume load with this method organisation of training sessions in one mesocycle usually do not change.
A more efficient scheme in which, in one mesocycle, the dynamics of change of load has a wave shape, rising in the early and mid-cycle, leaving the peak level in the second half and coming down to the end of the cycle. In this case, we avoid the state of stress of a sharp reduction or increase of loads. The form of such wave-like changes of load can be both smooth, with a gradual diminution or reduction, and the speed at which a change of the load of microcycles with different sizes. In the second case, the microcycle can vary from one to three weeks and wear a retractor, a base, drums or the nature of the recovery. It should be noted that during shock microcycle can be observed as a boost in leading functions (in the background, however, the accumulating fatigue of the organism as a whole), and its decrease in the result of training sessions in a state of nedoustanovlennoy. This state for a limited period of time permissible, however, after the shock microcycle, should always follow the recovery microcycle, the reduced level of activity during which will get rid of these negative factors.
Sometimes organize the training process so that, on the background of training in the next training program, leave the training impact factor, dominant in the previous exercise, keeping a minimum load level required to maintain it. If it was a factor, developing high-intensity loads, the level of training influences is reduced, increasing the rest period between them. If it was a factor, developing high-volume low-intensity loads, the level of training influences reduce, reducing their volume.
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